Oriented (anisotropic): has better magnetic properties in a given direction. During the manufacturing process, a magnetic field is applied in the direction of preferred magnetization to orient the material and increase the magnet's performance potential. With oriented material, multiple pole magnetization flux goes "through" the magnet making both sides of the magnet strong.
Non-oriented (isotropic): Has equal magnetic properties in all directions. During the manufacturing process the magnet is not exposed to a magnetic field. This material can be magnetized in any magnetization pattern. This material is weaker than oriented materials. With non-oriented material, multiple pole magnetization flux bends inside the magnet making it strong on one side only.
The following magnetization patterns apply to both oriented and non-oriented magnet materials.
Through the length - Magnetized North at one end and South at the other.
Through the length or axial - Magnetized North on one end and South on the other.
Through the thickness - Magnetized North on one side of the thickness and South on the other.
Disc or Ring
Through the thickness - Magnetized North on one face of the disc and South on the other.
Bar or Block
Through the width or across the width - Magnetized North on one side of width and South on the other.
Multiple poles (two sets or more) on a surface magnetized through the thickness - Magnetized with more than one set of N/S poles on one or both faces of the magnet.
FLEXIBLE MAGNET POLE PATTERNS
A. Conventional Magnetization: has one pole on each side of the magnet. North pole on one side, South pole on the other.
B. Multiple Pole (Standard): Two Poles (B1) or Multiple Poles (B2) on each side; two or more sets of poles on each surface are used in open circuit designs. North and South poles alternate through the thickness of the material. Steel backing is desirable where practical.